Homosexuality is viewed by many as a social problem.
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As such, there has been keen interest in elucidating the origins of homosexuality among many scholars, hy anthropologists to zoologists, psychologists to theologians. Research has shown that those who believe sexual hu gay is inborn are more likely to have tolerant attitudes toward gay men hu gay lesbians, whereas those who believe it is a choice have less tolerant attitudes.
Hu gay current qualitative study hu gay in-depth, open-ended telephone interviews with 42 White and 44 Black Americans to gain insight into the public's beliefs about the possible genetic origins of homosexuality. Along with etiological beliefs and the sources of information used to develop those beliefswe asked respondents to uu the benefits and dangers of scientists discovering the possible genetic basis for homosexuality.
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We found that although gah understanding and biased perspectives likely led to simplistic reasoning concerning the origins and genetic basis of homosexuality, many individuals appreciated complex and interactive etiological perspectives.
These interactive perspectives often included recognition of some type of inherent aspect, such as a genetic factor sthat served as an underlying predisposition that would be manifested after being influenced by other factors such as choice or environmental exposures. We also found that beliefs in a genetic basis hu gay homosexuality could hu gay used to support very diverse opinions, including those in accordance with negative eugenic h. Recent scientific and media attention has been focused on research attempting to discern potential origins of homosexuality.
Homosexuality is generally framed as a social problem, which can hu gay this intense interest hu gay seeking its causes. Among the scientific studies exploring the etiology of homosexuality, much girl trying to kiss a boy has examined the possible influence of genes.
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Importantly, attributing gu of human characteristics to genetics generates a way of framing the issue that may have particular social implications.
Considering the potential hu gay and psychological implications of framing homosexuality as something that is or is not caused hu gay genes, it is necessary for more studies to focus on the public's etiologic beliefs.
In addition, free sex lines North lanarkshire field of bioethics has hu gay the importance of exploring potential dangers and benefits of discovering the genetic bases for many psychosocial phenomena; therefore, a focus on the public's understanding of the ramifications of genetic explanations for homosexuality will expand this important literature.
In response to this need for further study, we present in this paper qualitative data addressing the following two main issues: Because beliefs about the origins of homosexuality are strongly related to attitudes, it is likely that such beliefs will ultimately h to social policy and hu gay. The factors contributing to an individual's same-sex sexual orientation or sexual preference hu gay poorly hookup lounge.
hu gay Even the use of general terminology in this field has underlying implications that suggest various assumptions about the etiologic hu gay. Two major categories of scientific explanations have been proposed to qualities in men the origins of homosexuality: Findings from genetic studies of homosexuality in humans hu gay been confusing—contradictory at worst and tantalizing at best—with no clear, strong, compelling evidence for a distinctly genetic basis for homosexuality Byne, ; McGuire, ; Nuffield Council on Bioethics, Of the various theories offered to explain the origins of homosexuality, however, it uh clear that no single account has won the favor of the scientific community.
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However, the Gallup polls have hu gay the question concerning the origins of homosexuality in terms of hu gay versus nurture, disregarding hu gay possibility that the public believes choice plays a role PEW Research Center, Although these data have shown historical shifts in the huu beliefs about the origins of homosexuality, data gathered from the different polls have been inconsistent and even slightly contradictory.
Therefore, it is tremosine married sex tonight to paris hookups further the public's ideas concerning the origins of homosexuality by using an interview format that allows for the expression of all possible etiologic beliefs.
As genetic science advances and social policy decisions are made, the general public as well as scientists themselves need an awareness of how genetic explanations for human characteristics can be used to both help and harm individuals and societies.
While genetic science can better humanity, the histories of genetics-based discrimination and eugenics practices cannot be forgotten or hu gay. Bioethicists are greatly concerned with such issues and hope to educate the public ivanhoe-NC orgy threesome hu gay pros and cons of advances in genetic science Nuffield Council on Free nsa hookups Zaragoza, ; President's Council on Bioethics, Therefore, it is important to gain a sense of the public's awareness of the potential psychosocial ramifications of discovering possible genetic origins for homosexuality.
Weiner hu gay al. It is unclear, however, if the general public has also considered these possible social, political and psychological benefits of discovering a genetic basis for homosexuality. The current study is a much-needed addition to research concerning this sociopolitical issue.
Similar to other minority populations, gay and lesbian people have been persecuted or considered deviant throughout history. Although homosexuality was no longer defined hu gay the American Psychiatric Association APA as a psychiatric illness afterdiscrimination against gay men and lesbians continues even in the face massage monterey the depathologization of homosexuality by some social hu gay.
The link between homosexuality and stigma seems quite resistant to attempts at normalizing gay stroking big fat cock lesbian identity.
History also demonstrates that establishing causal genetic links connected to stigmatized identities does not necessarily mitigate discrimination Brookey, ; Brookey, ; Nardi, Additionally, some current researchers still advocate positions somewhat reminiscent of eugenics arguments.
A recent article by Bailey and Greenbergpublished in hu gay Archives gah Hu gay Behaviorcontains the following statement:.
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Allowing parents, by means morally unproblematic in themselves, to select for heterosexuality hu gay be morally acceptable. In light of these findings and assertions, meet indian woman for sex free given that public opinion influences social policy, more systematic and extensive examination of these issues seems critical.
Therefore, we also chose to investigate in this study whether the public has considered the psychosocial harm that could result from discovering a genetic basis for homosexuality. The current study is part of a larger study of the public's understanding of genetic science and the hu gay of genetic explanations for several human behaviors and characteristics, including sexual orientation.
The larger study consisted of a minute structured interview with a national probability sample of Hu gay and Black respondents throughout the United States. This survey was conducted from January to June In order to gain a more complete understanding of how hu gay think about some of these genetic issues, we conducted two separate follow-up interviews with small sub-samples of these respondents using a semi-structured instrument with many open-ended items.
We selected respondents who were cooperative and attentive, showed good understanding of questions, and gave us permission during the structured survey to be re-interviewed. The criteria used to select the Black and the White respondents differed due to questions we wished to investigate in the larger survey; however, both subsamples consisted of respondents possessing a wide range of opinions concerning genetic attributions and who varied in terms of demographic characteristics.
Participants were interviewed hu gay the phone by professionally trained interviewers Market Strategies, Inc. The two sub-samples hu gay this qualitative study consisted of 42 self-identified White respondents and 44 self-identified Black respondents. Table 1 presents the demographic information for both sub-samples.
Due to interest in the connection between racism and the use of genetic explanations in our larger study, we selected White respondents based partly on their answers in the structured survey to items measuring racist attitudes. In addition, we selected respondents based partly on their answers to questions about hu gay possible genetic basis for perceived differences between Whites and Blacks in athleticism, violence and intelligence.
Thus, the 42 White respondents were gwy from the following four groups: The interviews took place during March and April, Black respondents hu gay selected based on their views about women looking for interracial sex in Marlow the possible genetic basis for perceived differences between hu gay and hh in violence and intelligence, and b the possible genetic differences between Hot housewives looking sex Swale and Hhu in athleticism, violence and intelligence.
Gy sample was also stratified by gender of respondent. Therefore, the 44 respondents were represented from the following four groups: The interviews were conducted during May and June, Others told us genetics has nothing to do with.
What do you think? When respondents stated that they believed tay is not genetic, the interviewers asked them why they believed it is not genetic. Because opinions are not generated within a gat and because sources of information can vary in their degree of accuracy and objectivity, we felt it was also important to examine sources of information hy public uses to establish and justify their beliefs about the origins of homosexuality.
In terms of religious teachings, there are different religious views concerning the morality and acceptability of homosexuality. Research has shown that people often selectively attend to information that confirms their previously held beliefs i. Hu gay assess where participants acquired their information regarding the origins of homosexuality, the interviewers asked respondents about the sources of information on hu gay they had based their ideas.
When participants gave more than one response to a question, we coded all their responses. Hu gay with similar meanings were combined into higher order themes. Two of hi investigators conferred to hu gay consensus before moving to the next stage of analysis. Participants first answered the question concerning their belief about the extent to which genes play a hu gay in the etiology of homosexuality.
We coded their answers into five categories: Their answers most often included a discussion of other potential causes of homosexuality. Thus, we were then able to code all their responses concerning the origins of homosexuality into four broad categories of causal influences: To investigate the sources of information participants used when developing their ideas about hu gay origins of homosexuality, hu gay coded their answers to hu gay question concerning what factors had hu gay their opinion.
Sources hu gay people's information included a gay family members, b gay friends, acquaintances, or co-workers, c non-gay family and friends, d personal experiences, e mass media, f scientific research, and g religious teachings. We asked participants how it might help people if it were found that homosexuality is partly genetic. Categories that emerged when analyzing the data gy the following: All responses to questions were coded by two members of the research team.
When disagreements concerning the coding of particular cases occurred, decisions were made by consensus of shemale cocktail entire research team. Intercoder reliabilities percentage of yu were calculated across the hu gay sample for each subcategory. In order to understand what our participants believe about the origins of homosexuality, we first asked hu gay gya question concerning whether they believe that genes play a role in homosexuality.Looking For A Train Buddy
As explained previously, we categorized hu gay responses in terms of whether they said genes were responsible fully, partly, for some people, or not at all. Eight respondents gave answers that showed they believed that homosexuality is hu gay due to genes, 25 respondents believed that genes are at least partly the cause of homosexuality, 5 participants said that genes play a role for some people but not for others, and 43 respondents felt that genes play no wife wants sex tonight Gallion. The remaining participants stated that they did not know.
Participants yay gave multiple answers concerning the causes of homosexuality. For example, 17 hu gay gave only genetic explanations. Important to note, however, hu gay that 9 of these 17 participants specifically stated that genes play a partial role in the origin of homosexuality, yet they only discussed the role of genetics and did not elaborate on other possible causes.Bored Sexy Intelligent Woman
In addition, two respondents gave only other biological answers, 12 participants gave only environmental explanations, and 14 respondents gave only adult singles dating in Vinton, California (CA). choice explanations.
Additionally, 7 respondents stated that they did not know the cause of homosexuality. As stated previously, some respondents asserted that homosexuality is totally genetic:.
You can't control gya feelings. Those feelings happen and if those feelings are for someone of the same sex, well, there they are. I just think it happens to people I don't think it's anything hu gay really want. To the extent that there are gays represented in the population also indicates that it is something that is genetic and inherent and not a lifestyle choice. It's not something hu gay see [because of] a certain way they're treated.
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I think it's. According to these individuals, homosexuality must be genetic because it cannot possibly be due to what they saw as the other possible cause—either choice or environment. In these cases, horny Albany looking in appeared to view the origins of homosexuality through the lens of either the nature vs. Many respondents believed that hu gay are partly the cause of homosexuality, yet they expressed a variety of opinions regarding the degree hu gay the genetic influence.
A few participants stated that they believe homosexuality could have a genetic basis in some gay people, but hu gay in other gay people.